From Dragon Ball Encyclopedia, the ''Dragon Ball'' wiki
The user raises their hand or finger in the air and gathers their energy in the form of a giant, yellow-orange, sun-like sphere. The user then launches the attack against their target. Like the normal Death Ball, it is mostly used to destroy planets or as a last ditch effort to kill an enemy.
Main article: Trunks Saga
When Future Trunks Brief had transformed into a Super Saiyan and easily blocked Mecha Freeza's attacks, the robotic tyrant flew into the air and launched the Supernova, attempting to destroy Planet Earth the same way he had previously destroyed Planet Namek. Trunks caught the attack without harm. Annoyed at this act, Mecha Freeza fired a blast at the Supernova, which caused it to explode. Fortunately, Trunks dodged the blast. While Mecha Freeza was caught off-guard, Trunks killed him with the Shining Sword Attack.
Bardock: The Father of Goku
Main article: Dragon Ball Z: Bardock: The Father of Goku
Freeza had learned of the Saiyan's rapidly growing strength and decided to eradicate them out of fear that they would have the power to become Super Saiyans and defeat him. When Bardock attempted to kill Freeza with the Final Spirit Cannon for the murder of his comrades because of Freeza's betrayal, the tyrant countered with his Supernova. The attack had killed Bardock and destroyed Planet Vegeta as well as the entire Saiyan race (a few Saiyans had survived though including Son Goku, Vegeta, Tarble, Nappa, Raditz, Tullece, Broly, and Paragas.)
Main article: Dragon Ball Z: Cooler's Revenge
When Cooler's final form proved to be too much for Goku to handle, Goku's rage and desperation transformed him into his Super Saiyan form. Battered around and overpowered by Super Saiyan Goku, Cooler launched his Supernova intent on destroying Goku along with the Planet Earth (he even mentions he can gather his energy much faster than Freeza). However, Goku manages to push it back with a Super Kamehameha, sending Cooler and his Supernova into the Sun and it seems that he is destroyed. In Dragon Ball Z: The Return of Cooler, however, it was discovered that Coola had survived the blast with only half of his head still remaining attached to the Big Gete Star, where he produced thousands of mechanical clones of himself called Metal Coola to combat Goku and Vegeta.
The Return of Cooler
Main article: Dragon Ball Z: The Return of Cooler
When Coola had been revived by the Big Gete Star as Metal Coola on New Planet Namek, he outclassed Goku due to his new regenerative ability and Instant Transmission technique. Wanting to end the fight, Metal Coola launched another Supernova to kill Goku, who at the last second teleported away from the blast via Instant Transmission.