From Dragon Ball Encyclopedia, the ''Dragon Ball'' wiki
Planet Vegeta (惑星 ベジータ, Wakusei Bejiita; FUNimation "Planet Vegeta"), formerly known as Planet Plant (惑星 プラント, Wakusei Puranto; FUNimation "Planet Plant") and Planet Tsufuru (惑星 ツフル, Wakusei Tsufuru; FUNimation "Planet Tuffle"), is a planet in the North Galaxy.
Planet Vegeta had been the homeworld of the Plants, Tsufruians, and Saiyans. It was seen briefly in the anime and manga, and therefore is little information given as to its exact nature. What is known is that Planet Vegeta possessed ten times the gravity of Planet Earth. Whether this means that Planet Vegeta was a physically larger world or merely a denser one is never explained; it could be both. At any rate, it is this intense gravity that gave the Saiyans their natural physical resiliency and power. Likewise, it can be assumed that other native lifeforms had also adapted to Planet Vegeta's gravity. The Tsufruians, believed to be a native race of Planet Vegeta, appeared to have evolved along different lines by having smaller bodies so that the gravity affected them less.
Based on what can be seen of Planet Vegeta in the manga and anime, the planet appeared to be a harsh desert world with a red sky instead of blue as seen in Dragon Ball Z: Bardock: The Father of Goku. Nothing is ever directly stated, however, about its weather, flora, fauna, or geology. Planet Vegeta had two unnamed natural satellites (though there is only a full moon every 100 years, or 8 years depending on the dub.
It also seemed to be in ruins about 100 years before Vegeta and Nappa landed on Earth. By using the Pendulum Room, Kuririn, Tenshinhan, Yamucha, and Chaozu traveled there spiritually, only to be thrashed by the Illusion Saiyans (Shorty and Scarface). They said, "No one comes to Vegeta!". It was only a spiritual experiences, however, and they came back afterward. It is also worth noting that this experience was anime-only, and thus is not canon to the original manga. Additionally, they do not seem to be under a higher gravity, and other flashback scenes of Planet Vegeta greatly differ in their depiction of the planet.
Main article: Saiyan-Tsufruian war
Planet Plant was once home to two races: the Tsufruians and the Saiyans. The Tsufruians were a diminutive race, believed to be native to Planet Plant, who lacked physical strength and toughness, but were very intelligent and skilled with technology. By contrast, the Saiyans were average-sized, but very strong and brutal. They had come seeking refuge from their previous homeworld's destruction at the hands of an out of control Super Saiyan. Despite their incredible powers, the Saiyans were primitive and backwards, living in small clans scattered across the deserts of Planet Vegeta. Meanwhile, the Tsufruians used their ingenuity to create large metropolis in which to live and were fairly prosperous. Their life was a peaceful one until suddenly the Saiyans decided to attack. The Saiyans, led by King Vegeta, declared war against the Tsufruians. The Saiyans were giants compared to the Tsufruians, but due to the latter's technology, they managed to keep an upper hand in the war.
Soon, something happened to give the Saiyans an upper hand. The full moon came up, something that only happened once every 100 years (every 8 in the English dubs of the anime). The Saiyans possessed the ability to transform into giant apes called Great Apes (or Oozarus) whenever exposed to the light of a full moon, and in these new forms they were able to easily defeat and obliterate the Tsufruians. They took over the planet and renamed it Planet Vegeta after their king.
Exploitation by Freeza
Main article: Genocide of the Saiyans
Soon the Saiyans were discovered by the tyrant Freeza. He found their race was strong and had a love of fighting, so he began to exploit them. He employed them to destroy races of people for him, to take over their planets, and eventually bring about Freeza's goal of ruling the entire universe. The planet was soon transformed into a military base, with many of Freeza's men stationed alongside the Saiyans. Young Saiyans with low battle powers (Low Class Saiyans) were sent off to other planets to wipe out the inhabitants, making the planet fit to sell.
The Saiyans increased their strength quickly, however, and Freeza became worried that they would become too powerful. While Freeza had little fear of lone Saiyans, their power in numbers was evident that it may be troublesome. Too prideful to admit it, he also harbored a secret fear of the legendary Super Saiyan who may arise one day; he had a premonition that it was not just a story. Zarbon suggested to Freeza that it would be prudent to wipe out the Saiyans before they grew more threatening. A few rebel Saiyans, including King Vegeta, sensed this and plotted against Freeza. The Saiyan Bardock survived an ambush which killed his friends, and vowed revenge on their treacherous master. They attacked Freeza, but his strength was overwhelming and he defeated them easily. To rid himself of the Saiyan menace forever, he destroyed the planet along with nearly all of the Saiyans, the only survivors being Raditz, Nappa, Vegeta, and Kakarrot (Goku). (In the Dragon Ball Z films and TV Specials, the Saiyans Tullece, Broly, Paragus, and Tarble also survived.)
The destruction of Planet Vegeta is slightly different between the manga and the anime. In the anime, Freeza destroys the planet with a Supernova. In the manga, Freeza simply states that he attacked the planet (though he does state that he destroyed it when mentioning how Son Goku resembled the Saiyan who had caused him trouble). Also, Raditz (in the first volume of Dragon Ball Z) states that Planet Vegeta was destroyed by an asteroid in his big speech explaining Son Goku's backstory before Son Goku came to Planet Earth. (Vegeta was told the same account shortly after the planet was destroyed.) It is possible that Raditz was not aware that Freeza had been behind their planet's destruction. In the anime, North Kaio also told Son Goku a different story about Planet Vegeta's Kami drawing in many large asteroids to destroy the planet. This may have been fabricated to keep Son Goku from learning of Freeza and seeking him out.
Main article: New Planet Plant
The planet was wished back and renamed once again Planet Plant by Baby in Dragon Ball GT, and thereafter served as Earth's new moon. Alternate names include New Planet Plant, New Planet Tsufru, and New Planet Vegeta. It was also the location of the final battle with Baby and where the people of Earth evacuated to when Earth was destroyed.
- Each time Planet Vegeta is seen in a different occasion, it has a different appearance. The planet is red in Bardock: The Father of Goku, green/blue in a flashback in Dragon Ball GT, blue in Dragon Ball: Plan to Eradicate Super Saiyans, has rings when Raditz mentions it, and looks like Planet Earth in North Kaio's story.
- North Kaio claims in an anime filler that Planet Vegeta also has a Kami who, upset at the Saiyans' horrible behavior, decides to slaughter the Saiyans with a meteor shower. Later, the manga claims that the asteroid that Raditz speaks about is merely a cover-up for Freeza's genocide of the Saiyan race, and the anime also follows suit. Dodoria finally confirmed that Freeza was responsible for the destruction of Planet Vegeta when he explained the truth of the planet's end to Vegeta.
- North Kaio's story implies that the Saiyans were native to Planet Vegeta as they did not have the technology to reach other planets before meeting the aliens who gave it to them. Dragon Ball GT states, however, that they came from another planet in Attack Balls. Vegeta also mentions that the Original Super Saiyan destroyed the Sayian's first homeworld (these events relate to the The Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans film). It is possible North Kaio does not realize this, simplifies the issue, or it is a writing error in which the writers did not realize these details until a later time.
- The Planet stage in Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi 3 looks like the surface of Planet Freeza or Planet Vegeta.